Context &
 & Atrocities
& Demands 
The Armenian Massacres of 1894-1897: A Bibliography

By George Shirinian, Revised August 15, 1999


he large-scale and widespread massacres of the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire, from Sasun in August 1894 to Tokat in February and March 1897, caused a sensation in Europe and North America. They gave rise to a flood of publications detailing numerous atrocities and expressing moral outrage. Modern scholarship, however, has tended to overlook this series of massacres and concentrate on the 1915 Armenian Genocide, owing to its very enormity. Since works on the 1894-1897 massacres are generally not as well known today as those on the subsequent Genocide, this bibliography attempts to document these publications and organize them into useful categories.

The Armenian Massacres of 1894-1897 are very complex and have been approached from various points of view. Writers have attributed their outbreak to many causes, e.g., 1. the lack of civil and human rights for the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, resulting in systemic abuse of all kinds; 2. Kurdish depredations; 3. Armenian reaction to outrageous taxation; 4. the failure of the Congress of Berlin, 1878, to properly address the Armenian Question; 5. The Congress of Berlin for even attempting to address the Armenian Question; 6. Armenian intellectuals engendering in the people a desire for independence; 7. the successful efforts of other nationalities to extricate themselves from the Ottoman Empire; 8. manipulation of the naive Armenians to rebel by the Great Powers interested in partitioning the Ottoman Empire; 9. manipulation of the European Powers by the calculating Armenians to become involved in internal Ottoman affairs on their behalf; 10. the personality of Sultan Abdul Hamid. Western writers, especially, interpret the events largely in terms of the foreign policies of the various European powers and the United States. Only to a lesser extent do they examine the events from the point of view of internal Ottoman politics or what would today be loosely termed "nationalism." The gruesome details of innumerable atrocities are not deemed appropriate to modern scholarship and so the horrors of a nation are forgotten. Some even deny the events happened the way the overwhelming evidence depicts (see Section, 8 below). Interestingly, all the facts, arguments, and interpretations found in modern studies were already public at the time of the Massacres.

An analysis of publication dates shows that European interest in the Armenian massacres waned sharply after 1896. This is due in part to European attention being diverted by the conflict between Turkey and Greece over Crete in 1896 and 1897. One result of this loss of interest is that the massacres of Sasun and Spaghank in May, 1900, Diarbekir in November, 1900, Mush and Sasun, again, in September, 1901, and Bitlis and Van in January, 1902, have been separated from those of 1894-1897, dropped from the historical record and, consequently ignored in the West to this day. The lesson of the lack of constancy on the part of the European Powers and the short historical memory of the West was not lost on Turkish rulers, as they committed massacre, yet again, at Adana in 1909, and ultimately felt confident enough to launch the Genocide in April, 1915. One is inevitably reminded here of the notorious quote of Adolph Hitler, in a speech given to his military commanders on August 22, 1939, "Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?" (See K. B. Bardakjian, Hitler and the Armenian Genocide. Cambridge, MA: Zoryan Institute, 1985, p. 1.) While this statement is generally understood to refer to the 1915 Genocide, the sentiment is equally applicable to the whole series of massacres, as well. Thus, of the 790 publications listed below, there are only 77 since the end of World War II dealing with the 1894-1897 era of the massacres, many of them works of revisionism and denial.

A special word is required to explain the inclusion of a separate section for works representing the Turkish nationalist point of view. The Turkish nationalist point of view may be defined as one which minimizes or denies entirely the massacres that were committed against Ottoman Armenians and seeks to avoid Turkish responsibility for these crimes. Proponents of this point of view have distorted and ignored material evidence and used specious arguments to mislead others with respect to facts and interpretation. By including such works in this bibliography, a balance of points of view is respected, but the reader is also alerted and cautioned about the use of this material. There is sufficient material included in the rest of this bibliography to expose these denialist works for what they are.

The material is organized into eight broad divisions, which are the result of an analysis of the subject and of the publications, themselves:

1. Background To the Massacres: The Armenian Question 1878-1894
2. Documentary Collections
3. Memoirs and Eye-Witness Accounts
4. The Massacres
5. The Policies of the Great Powers
6. General Books and Articles from the Era of the Massacres
7. General Modern Studies
8. The Turkish Nationalist Point of View.
The entries within each section are arranged alphabetically, first by title, if there is no author, then by author. If an author has more than one entry in a section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by title under the author's name. Section 4 is further arranged alphabetically by geographical region. Section 5 is further arranged alphabetically by country. In a number of instances, a single item appears under more than one heading, as its subject content dictates.

There is a total of 929 entries, of which 810 are unique. Languages represented are Armenian, Bulgarian, English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, and Turkish. The transliteration of Bulgarian and Russian is based on the Library of Congress scheme with the omission of certain diacritics. The transliteration of Armenian is according to the editorial policy of the Armenian Review. The bibliographic format is based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition.

The material for this bibliography was collected from reading numerous books and articles on the subject, as well as scanning various library catalogues and indexes. Although I have attempted to make this bibliography comprehensive, some boundaries had to be set. First, I have largely excluded general studies on the history of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and broader works on the Armenian Question that did not go in depth or give some special insight into the 1894-1897 period. Secondly, I have excluded reference to most newspaper articles; those I have included are only a small sampling of the most interesting. Newspaper coverage of the Armenian Massacres is a valuable source of information and would make a large and interesting study in its own right. Thirdly, while I have strived to verify every entry, this has not always been possible, and when there was doubt as to the accuracy or relevance of an item, I have omitted it.

Since there has not been a qualitative distinction made among these references, the quality and tone of the materials in this bibliography cover a broad range. Some works are more polemical, others are more descriptive, while yet others are more analytical. In a future, revised version of this bibliography, I hope to indicate works which are standard references or fundamental to the study of the Armenian Massacres.

Recognizing the diverse nature of publications about the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1897, including monographs, essays, periodical articles, newspaper reports, editorials, memoirs, official government correspondence, speeches, and pamphlets, from many countries and in many languages, and spanning more than a century, it would be unrealistic to call this bibliography exhaustive. There are a number of areas that I have been unable to pursue adequately, but have potential importance: yearbooks and local and compatriotic histories of Armenian communities in Turkey, usually published in Armenian; personal memoirs written in the Armenian language; the memoirs of American missionaries who worked in the Ottoman Empire during this era; the memoirs of Western diplomats; newspapers; and Armenian and Russian language periodicals. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this bibliography, which, I believe, is the first attempt at a comprehensive list of publications on the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1897, may serve as a guide to the voluminous and widely scattered information in existence, direct researchers to useful sources, elucidate which topics have been dealt with and which are awaiting adequate treatment, and, finally, encourage further study and publication on this epochal event in Armenian history.


  • "The Armenian Debate." London Spectator 67 (July 18, 1891): 85-87. 
  • "Armenian Question." International Journal of Middle East Studies 9 (Aug. 1978): 379-400. 
  • Les Arméniens en Turquie. Paris, 1877. (Report of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople to the Sublime Porte.) 
  • The Case for the Armenians. London: Anglo-Armenian Association, 1893, 54p. 
  • "The True Danger in Armenia." London Spectator 65 (Sept. 13, 1890): 329. 
  • "A Vanishing Treaty." London Spectator 65 (Aug. 9, 1890): 172-173.
  • Anderson, M.S. The Eastern Question 1774-1923: A Study in International Relations. London: Macmillan, 1966 (repr. with corrections 1968), 436p. 
  • Apcar, S. The Armenians and the Eastern Question. London, 1878. 
  • An Armenian. The Armenians and the Eastern Question. A Series of Letters on Armenia and the Armenians. The Text of the "Memoir" Addressed to the Cabinets of Europe. London: Stanford, 1878, 72p. 
  • An Eastern Statesman. "The Armenian Question." Contemporary Review 37 (Apr. 1880): 533-547. 
  • "Contemporary Life and Thought in Turkey." Contemporary Review 37 (Feb. 1880): 334-356. 
  • Benjamin, S. G. W. "The Armenians and the Porte." Atlantic Monthly 67 (Apr. 1891): 524-530. 
  • Beylerian, Arthur. "L'Imperialisme et le mouvement national arménien (1885-1890)." Relations Internationales (1975): 19-54.
  • "Les origines de la question arménien du Traité de San Stefano au Congrès de Berlin." Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique 1-2 (Jan.-June 1973): 139-171. 
  • Bishop, Isabella L. Bird. "The Shadow of the Kurd, I." Contemporary Review 59 (May 1891): 642-654; "The Shadow of the Kurd, II," Contemporary Review 59 (June 1891): 819-835. 
  • Careri, G. "Gli Armeni nella questione d'Oriente" (The Armenians in the Eastern Question). Società Africana d'Italia (Feb. 1884). 
  • Castelar, E. La Question arménienne. Art. 61 du Traité de Berlin de 1878. Paris: Imp. Chaix, 1887, 49p. 
  • Cholet, Le Comte de. Arménie, Kurdistan et Mésopotamie. Paris: Librairie Plon, 1892. 
  • Dadrian, Vahakn N. The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence, RI, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1995, 452p. 
  • Diev, Gr. A. Armianskii vopros v Turtsii: Iz perepiski so stambul'skim publitsistom (The Armenian Question in Turkey: From letters exchanged with an Istanbul publicist). Moscow: Tip. D.I. Inozemtzeva, 1893, 78p. 
  • Dillon, E. J. "The Condition of Armenia." Contemporary Review 68 (Aug. 1895): 153-189. 
  • Driault, Édouard. La Question d'Orient depuis ses origines jusqu'à la Paix de Sèvres, 8e éd. Paris: F. Alcan, 1921, 479p. 
  • Dubor, G. de. "La Question arménienne." La Vie Contemporaine 9 (1896). 
  • Engelhardt, E. "L'Angleterre et la Russie à propos de la question arménienne." Revue de Droit International (1883). 
  • Geffcken, F. H. "The Eastern Question: Turkish Reforms and Armenia." Nineteenth Century 38 (1895): 991-1000. 
  • Kharatyan, A. A. "Osmanyan graknnut`yune ev arevmtahay mamule (1870-1890-akan t`t`.)" (Ottoman censorship and the press of Western Armenia from the 1870's to the 1890's). Patma-Banasirakan Handes no. 4 (1985): 103-116. 
  • Kirakosyan, Jon. Burzhuakan divanagitut`yune ev Hayastane (XIX dari 70-akan t`t`.) (Bourgeois diplomacy and Armenia in the 1870's). Erevan: Hayastan, 1978, 364p. 
  • Kirakosyan, Jon. Burzhuakan divanagitut`yune ev Hayastane (XIX dari 80-akan t`t`.) (Bourgeois diplomacy and Armenia in the 1880's). Erevan: Hayastan, 1980, 456p. 
  • Koutcharian, Gerayer. Der Siedlungsraum der Armenier unter dem Einfluss der historisch-politischen Ereignisse seit dem Berliner Kongress 1878: eine politisch-geographische Analyse und Dokumentation (The settlement area of Armenia under the influence of the historical-political event of the Congress of Berlin, 1878: A political-geographical analysis and documentation). Berlin: D. Reimer, 1989, 317p. 
  • La Barbe. "Die Steuern im türkischen Armenien und die Ursachen der armenischen Bewegung" (Taxes in Turkish Armenia and the causes of the Armenian agitation). Neue Zeit 16 (1897): 37-46. 
  • Lamy, T. G. "La Question arménienne." Revue Catholique (1874-1875). 
  • Lanin, E. B. "Armenia and the Armenian People." Fortnightly Review n.s. 48, no. 284 (Aug. 1, 1890): 258-273. 
  • Lynch, H. F. B. "The Armenian Question, I - In Russia." Contemporary Review 65 (June 1894): 847-865; "The Armenian Question, II - In Russia." Contemporary Review 66 (July 1894): 91-107; "The Armenian Question, III (Conclusion) - In Turkey." Contemporary Review 66 (Sept. 1894): 435-456. 
  • Malcom, James "An Armenian's Cry for Armenia." Nineteenth Century 28, no. 161 (Oct. 1890): 640-647. 
  • Medlicott, William Norton. The Congress of Berlin and After: A Diplomatic History of the Near Eastern Settlement, 1878-1880. 2nd Edition. London: Frank Cass, 1963, 442p. (A fundamental work on European diplomacy and the Eastern Question during this period.) 
  • Bismarck, Gladstone, and the Concert of Europe. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969, 353p. (Sequal to the work above, covering 1880-1881.) 
  • Nalbandian, Louise. The Armenian Revolutionary Movement. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967, 247p. 
  • Nassibian, Akaby. Britain and the Armenian Question, 1915-1923. London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984. See Chapter 1, "Introduction: Britain and the Armenian Question on the Eve of the First World War," pp. 1-32. 
  • Reid, James "War, Atrocity and Massacres, 1853-1896." Armenian Review 41, 1-161 (1988): 1-28. 
  • Riley, Athelstan. "Christians and Kurds in Eastern Turkey." Contemporary Review 56 (Sept. 1889): 452-468. 
  • Rolin-Jaequemyns, M. G. Armenia, the Armenians, and the Treaties. London: John Heywood, 1891, 104p. 
  • "L'Arménie, les Arméniens et les traités." Revue de Droit Internationale et de Législation Comparée 19 (1887): 284-325; 21 (1889): 291-353. 
  • Sandwith, Humphry. "How the Turks Rule Armenia." Nineteenth Century 3 (Feb. 1878): 314-329. 
  • Sarkissian, Arshag Ohan. History of the Armenian Question to 1885. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences 22, nos. 3-4, 1938, 151p. 
  • Schweiger-Lerchenfeld, Armand von. Armenien. Ein Bild seiner Natur und seiner Bewohner (Armenia. A picture of its nature and its inhabitants). Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1878, 227p. 
  • Sevasly, Miran. "The Armenian Question." New Review 1, 4 (Sept. 1889): 305-316. 
  • Somakian, Manoug J. Empires in Conflict: Armenia and the Great Powers, 1895-1920. London: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 1995, 276p. 
  • Stevenson, Francis Seymour. "The Armenian Agitation: A Rejoinder to Sadik Effendi." New Review 9 (1893): 648-654. See Sadik Effendi under Turkish Nationalist Point of View, below. 
  • "The Armenian Church: Its History and Its Wrongs." New Review 9 (1893): 201-206. 
  • Ter Minassian, Anaide. Nationalism and Socialism in the Armenian Revolutionary Movement. Translated by A.M. Berrett. Cambridge, MA: Zoryan Institute, 1984, 69p. 
  • La question arménienne. Paris: Éditions Parenthèses, 1983, 239p. 
  • Troy, P. La Question arménienne. Constantinople: Imprimerie Muhendissian, 1861, 20p. 
  • Vardanyan, Hamo G. Arevmtahayeri azatakrut`yan harts`e ew hasarakakan-k`aghak`akan hosank`nere XIX d. verjin k`arordum (The question of Western Armenian liberation and popular-political currents during the last quarter of the 19th century). Erevan, 1967. 
  • "Usilenie sotsial'nogo i politicheskogo gneta zapadnykh armian posle Berlinskogo Kongressa" (The intensification of social and political oppression of Western Armenians after the Congress of Berlin). Istoriko-Filologicheskii Zhurnal no. 3/26 (1964): 69-78.
  • Vaujany, H. de. État présent de la Turquie. La Question arménienne. Paris: Savine, 1890. 
  • Woods, H. C. The Truth about Asia Minor. London, 1890. 
  • Zeidner, R. F. "Britain and the Launching of the Armenian Question." International Journal of Middle East Studies 7, 4 (1976): 465-483. 
  • The Armenian Genocide and America's Outcry: A Compilation of U.S. Documents, 1890-1923. Washington, D.C.: Armenian Assembly of America, 1985. 126p.
  • American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. ABCFM Papers. Miscellaneous Papers Relating to the Near East Mission. 
  • Anderson, M. S. The Great Powers and the Near East 1774-1923. London, 1970. 
  • Charmetant, Félix. Martyrologe arménien. Tableau officiel des massacres d'Arménie, dressé après enquêtes par les six ambassades de Constantinople et statistique dressée par des témoins oculaires grégoriens et protestants. Paris: Oeuvres d'Orient, 1896, 96p. 
  • Martirologio arméno. Greviso, 1896, 123p. 
  • German Diplomatic Documents, 1871-1914. Selected and translated by E. T. S. Dugdale. Vol. 2. London: Methuen, 1929. See especially "Historical Preface," pp. xiv-xvii; Ch. 8, "The Armenian Question," pp. 109-114; Ch. 16, "The Armenian Question, 1893-5," pp. 211-235; Ch. 23, "Lord Salisbury and the Future of Turkey. July to October, 1895," pp. 327-347; and Ch. 24, "The Armenian Failure. September, 1895, to January, 1897," pp. 348-364. 
  • France. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Commission de Publication des Documents Rélatifs aux Origines de la Guerre de 1914. Documents diplomatiques français (1871-1914), 1re série, (1871-1900), t. 12 (mai 8 1895-14 octobre 1896). Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1951. 
  • France. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Commission de Publication des Documents Rélatifs aux Origines de la Guerre de 1914. Documents diplomatiques français (1871-1914), 1re série, (1871-1900), t. 13 (16 oct 1896-13déc 1897). Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1953. 
  • France. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Commission de Publication des Documents Rélatifs aux Origines de la Guerre de 1914. Documents diplomatiques français (1871-1914), 1re série, (1871-1900), t. 14 (4 janvier 1898-30 décembre 1898). Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1957. 
  • France. Ministère des Affaires Etrangères. Documents Diplomatiques. Livre Jaune. Affaires arméniennes. Projets de réformes dans l'Empire Ottoman 1893-1897, 2 vols. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1897. 
  • Great Britain. Foreign Office. Blue Book: Turkey. 1889, No. 1; 1890-1891, No.1; 1892, No. 2. (Correspondence respecting the condition of the population in the Asiatic provinces of Turkey.) 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1895, No. 1 (Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey), Part I (Events at Sassoon and the Commission of Enquiry at Mush). London: Harrison and Sons, 1895, 208p. (Great Britain. House of Commons, Sessional Papers, v. 109, 1895.) 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1895, No. 1 (Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey), Part II (Commission of Enquiry at Mush: Procès-verbaux and Separate Dispositions). London: Harrison and Sons, 1895, 378p. (Great Britain. Parliament, Sessional Papers, v. 109, 1895.) 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 1 (Correspondence Respecting the Introduction of Reforms in the Armenian provinces of Asiatic Turkey). London: Harrison and Sons, 1896, 176p. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 2. (Correspondence Relative to the Armenian Question and Reports from Her Majesty's Consular Officers in Asiatic Turkey). London: Harrison and Sons, 1896, 339p. (Great Britain. Parliament, Sessional Papers, v. 95, 1896). 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 3. (Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey, 1892-93). London: Harrison and Sons, 1896. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 5. (Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey. Reports by Vice Consul Fitzmaurice, from Birejik, Ourfa, Adiaman and Behesni). London: Harrison and Sons, 1896, 19p. (Great Britain. Parliament, Sessional Papers, v. 106, 1896). 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 6. (Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey, 1894-1895. London: Harrison and Sons, 1896, 393p. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1896, No. 8. (Further Correspondence Relating to the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey ... Presented to Both Houses). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1896], 300p. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1897, No. 1. (Correspondence Respecting the Disturbances at Constantinople in August 1896). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1897]. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1897, No. 2. (Correspondence Respecting the Introduction of Reforms in the Administration of the Ottoman Empire). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1897]. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1897, No. 3. (Further Correspondence Respecting the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey and Events in Constantinople). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1897], 114p. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1897, No. 7. (Further Correspondence Respecting the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey and Events in Constantinople). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1897], 144p. 
  • Blue Book: Turkey. 1898, No. 1. (Further Correspondence Respecting the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, [1898]. 
  • Kirakosian, J. S., ed. Hayastane michazkayin divanakitut`yan ew sovetakan artakin kaghakakanut`yan pastateghterum, 1828-1923 (Armenia in the documents of international diplomacy and Soviet foreign policy, 1828-1923). Erevan, 1972. 
  • Lepsius, Johannes, Albrecht Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Friederich Thimme, eds. Die Grosse Politik der Europaïschen Kabinette, 1871-1914: Sammlung der Diplomatischen Akten des Auswärtigen Amtes. Band 9: Der nahe und der ferne Osten. Band 10: Das türkische Problem 1895. Berlin: Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft für Politik und Geschichte, 1924. 
  • Nersisian, M. G., ed. Genotsid armian v Osmanskoi Imperii: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov (The Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Collected documents and materials). 2nd ed. Erevan: Hayastan, 1982, 686p. 
  • Un Philarménien. La Vérité sur les massacres d'Arménie. Documents nouveaux et peu connus. Rapports de témoins oculaires. Correspondances particulières. Paris: Stock, 1896, 128p. 
  • Schopoff, A. Les Réformes et la protection des Chrétiens en Turquie, 1673-1904. Paris: Librarie Plon, 1904. 
  • imir, Bilâl N. British Documents on Ottoman Armenians, 4 vols. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, 1982-1990. 
  • imir, Bilâl N. Documents diplomatiques ottomanes. 2 vols. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, 1985-1989, 580p. + 675p. 
  • Stewart, Laddie J. Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the U.S. Consulate General in Constantinople, Turkey: 1855-1935. Washington, DC: Ulusal Arivlerde yaylanmami belge, 1954. 
  • Temperley, Harold, and Lillian M. Penson. Foundations of British Foreign Policy from Pitt (1792) to Salisbury (1902). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938, 573p. 
  • Thoumaïan, G. Les massacres en Arménie. Rapport officiel des six ambassadeurs à Constantinople. Extraits du <<Livre Jaune. Lettres et rapports de témoins oculaires. Précédés d'une aperçu général de la question arménienne. Paris: Comité protestant français du secours aux Arméniens, 1897, 132p. 
  • United States. Dept. of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896. 
  • American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. ABCFM Papers. Miscellaneous Papers Relating to the Near East Mission (ABC 16.5). Vol. 5. 
  • An Armenian Refugee. The Story of My Escape. Reading, 1897. 
  • Armentzit i Sultan Abdul Khamid. Po sietzialni korrespondentzii na ochervidtzy (Armenia and Sultan Abdul Hamid. Special correspondence of eye-wintesses). Sophia, 1898. 
  • Aprahamian, Souren. From Van to Detroit: Surviving the Armenian Genocide. Ann Arbor: Gomidas Institute, 1993, 265p. 
  • Aso. Garmir orer (Red days). New York: Yeritasard Hayastan, 1907, 63p. 
  • Bayly, E. B. Memoir of Ida Mellinger. London, 1900, 138p. Mellinger was an American missionary. 
  • Behesnilian, Krikor. In Bonds: An Armenian's Experiences. London: Morgan and Scott, 1896, 63p.; 3rd ed., [1903?]. 
  • Blunt, Wilfred Scawen. My Diaries, Being a Personal Narrative of Events, 1888-1919. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1921, 419p. See especially pp. 185-192. 
  • Cambon, Paul. Corréspondance 1870-1924, 3 vols. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1940-1946. (See "La Turquie d'Abd Ul Hamid," in volume 1, 385-398, and 411-420). 
  • Carlier, Émilie. Au milieu des massacres; journal de la femme d'un Consul de France en Arménie. Paris: Félix Juven, 1903, 156p.
  • Chambers, William Nesbitt. Yoljuluk: Random Thoughts on a Life in Imperial Turkey. London: Simpkin Marshall, 1928, 125p. (Republished Paramus, NJ: Armenian Missionary Association of America, 1988.) 
  • Deranian, Marderos. Hussenig: The Origin, History and Destruction of an Armenian Town. Translated, Revised and with Additions by Hagop Martin Deranian. Cambridge, MA: Armenian Heritage Press, 1994, pp. 36-38, 72, 75, 80. 
  • Giesl, Baron Wladimir. Zwei Jahrzehnte im Nahen Orient (Two decades in the Near East). Berlin, 1927. 
  • Graves, Sir Robert. Storm Centres of the Near East: Personal Memories, 1879-1929. London: Hutchinson, 1933, 375p. See especially Chapter 8, "Armenia, 1893-1894. Sassun Massacre and Commission of Inquiry," pp. 140-152, and Chapter 9, "Armenia, 1895-1898. Armenian Massacres," pp. 153-165. 
  • Hartunian, Abraham H. Neither to Laugh Nor to Weep: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Armenian Heritage Press, 1986. See especially chapter 2, pp. 10-23. 
  • Howard, William Willard. Horrors of Armenia: The Story of an Eye-Witness. New York: Armenian Relief Association, 1896, 62p. 
  • Jafarian, Boghos. Farewell Kharpert: The Autobiography of Boghos Jafarian. Edited by Leon Mangasarian. Madison, WI: Claire Mangasarian, 1989, 258p. 
  • Jernazian, Ephraim K. Judgment Unto Truth: Witnessing the Armenian Genocide. Trans. Alice Haig. (Zoryan Institute Survivors' Memoirs, no. 4.) New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction Publishers, 1990. See especially pp. 1-19. 
  • MacColl, Malcom. Memoirs and Correspondence. Edited by G.W.E. Russell. London: Smith, Elder, 1914, 407p. 
  • Melitinetsi, Georg. Nakhchirner: Patmakan aknark me Malatioy ashkharagrakan dirke, kliman, ew artadrutiun, Malatioy hayutian 1895-i inknaposhtpanutian kriwnere, Malatioy hayutian bnajnjumn u teghahanutiwne, Malatioy krtasirats enkerutiwne (Atrocities: An historical look at Malatya, geographical position, climate and products, the 1895 self-defence battles of the Armenians, Malatya, the annihilation and deportation of Malatya Armenians, the educational organization of Malatya). Boston: Hairenik, 1929, 219p. 
  • Nazlian, Maritsa. Aksori chamban (The road to exile). Vienna: Dimel, Kossian, 1975, 144p. 
  • Pasdermadjian, Garegin. Bank Ottoman: Memoirs of Armen Garo. Edited by Simon Vratzian. Translated by Haig T. Pardizian. Detroit: Armen Topouzian, 1990, 210p. 
  • Pears, Sir Edwin. Forty Years in Constantinople. The Recollections of Sir Edwin Pears, 1873-1915. London: Herbert Jenkins; New York: D. Appleton, 1916, 390p. 
  • Pierce, James Wilson, ed. The Story of Turkey and Armenia with a Full and Accurate Account of the Recent Massacres Written by an Eye Witness. A Sketch of Clara Barton and the Red Cross. Baltimore: R. H. Woodward, 1896, 500p. 
  • Ruben [Ruben Ter Minassian]. Hay heghap`okhakani mu hishataknere (Memoirs of an Armenian revolutionary). Vol. 3. Beirut: Librarie Hamaskaïne, 1974, pp. 103-116. 
  • Shepard, F.D. Personal Experiences in Turkish Massacres and Relief Work. Worcester, 1911. 
  • Shtern, Detlef. Dve Armianki. Povest' iz turetskoi zhizni. Perevod L.T. Istoricheskie fakty iz zhizni turkov vremia armianskoi rezni 1895 goda. Zakhvat Ottomanskogo Banka - 1896 goda i nachalo razvitiia Mladoturetskogo dvizheniia (Two Armenian women. A story about Turkish life. Translated by L. T. Historical facts about Turkish life during the Armenian Massacres of 1895. Occupation of the Ottoman Bank - 1896 and how the Young Turk movement began to develop). St. Petersburg: Tipo-Litogr. T-va Svet, 1911, 64p. 
  • Standish, Burt L. Frank Merriwell's Venture, or, Driven from Armenia. New York: Street & Smith, 1896, 32p. 
  • Townsend, Arthur FitzHenry. A Military Consul in Turkey: The Experiences and Impressions of a British Representative in Asia Minor. London: Seeley, 1910. 
  • Vizetelly, Edward. The Reminiscences of a Bashi-Bazouk, with 55 Drawings ... and Some Photographs. Bristol: J.W. Arrowsmith; London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1897, 482p. 
  • United States. Dept. of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1895. Vol. 2. 
  • Eyewitness accounts of the 1895 and 1896 massacres by Kharpert missionaries. See pp. 1370-1381, and 888-892. 
  • Washburn, George. Fifty Years in Constantinople. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911, 319p. See especially Chapter XXII, "The Great Constantinople Massacre, 1896-1897," 245-249. 
  • Whitman, Sidney. Turkish Memories. London: William Heinemann; New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1914, 306p. See especially Ch. II, "The Armenian Outbreak in Constantinople (August 1896)," 10-35.
  • Zorian, Samuel H. This Man & Others: The Personal Memoirs of Samuel H. Zorian. Translated by Deran Rushton-Zorian. London: Mihran & Azniv Essefian Charitable Trust, 1996, 93p. 
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