age old process of volcanic and tectonic activity that took place on the
Armenian plateau, created in its depths an unusual geological" museum.
The rocks composing the earth's crust are also embedded in its depths.Armenia
has iron, copper, molybdenum, and polymetallic ores containing rare earth
elements and gold, silver, lead, and zinc. There are deposits of nephelin
for use as raw material in the production of aluminum and manganese deposits.
In Abovian and Hrazdan, there are two deposits of iron ore that are of
great industrial importance. These deposits are estimated to contain 400
million and 150 million tons respectively. The average content of iron
in the Abovian ore is 28 percent and in Hrazdan ore, 32 percent. The iron
ores of these deposits are complex. In addition to the main component of
iron, they contain valuable rare earth elements of the cerium and yttrium
group, as well as dispersed elements of germanium, gallium, tallium, niobium,
and tantalum. The Hrazdan deposit also contains zirconium.
and Precious Metals: Armenia has a strong mineral resource base
of copper molybdenum ores. Explored deposits of the world renowned Kadjaran
copper molybdenum ores are a potential source for the next 100 years The
Kadjaran mining and extracting factory is the largest enterprise in the
mining industry. Connected with the indicated type of copper molybdenum
ores are the explored and estimated reserves of molybdenum. the substantive
part copper reserves (90 percent). rare and dispersed elements (rhenium,
selenium, tellurium, bismuth. and germanium), and certain parts of accompanying
precious metals of gold and silver. Molybdenum and copper are the main
components of the complex copper molybdenum ores. The content of molybdenum
varies from 0.001 percent to 0.1. The content of copper traces is to 0.1
percent. The deposits of copper belonging to proper copper include about
10 percent of explored reserves with 80 percent of copper and copper pyrites
ores. In the ore veins of the Alaverdi deposit, the content of copper reaches
12 to 20 percent and more. The year 2000 is the target date for the restoration
of the Alaverdi copper works plant and the construction of a new modern
plant in Kapan.
Zinc: The lead and zinc ores are the second most common in Armenia
after copper molybdenum and proper copper. In the lead-zinc, copper-zinc,
and complex gold-polymetallic ore deposits, the average content of lead
is 1.5 to 3 percent, zinc is 2 to 6 percent, and copper, 0.5 to 1 percent.
These ores also contain valuable rare elements as cadmium, bismuth, indium.
Silver: The deposits of the mentioned ores of nonferrous metals
are characterized by a considerable content of precious metals making the
deposits industrially important. There are proper gold ore deposits in
Zod. Meghradzor. and Terterasar. Armenia has become a most remarkable gold
bearing region. A new plant is planned to be in operation by the year 2000.
The Armenian volcanic and segmentary
rocks are a useful building material. Particularly exceptional is the white,
pink, orange, and black tufa all of which are light, durable, and easily
processed. They serve as a main construction and decoration material. The
estimated reserve of the feizite tufa in Armenia is 3 billion cubic meters.
The country has abundant deposits of marble, granite. high quality travertine.
and limestone and small deposits of clay gypsum (the raw material for gypsum)
The Parakar deposit has a relatively large content of bihydrous gypsum
(50 to 80 percent or more). The Parakar plant is to begin operations in
There are also deposits of rich
natural mineral sorbents such as:
The high quality alkaline bentonite resource base is at the
Sarigyugh deposit. Bentonite is used as an addition in different technological
processes as well as a composite component in the production of fodder
The Armenian perlits are well known for high quality characteristics (purity,
low crystalline phase content, and optimal content of water). There are
three identified deposits of perlite in Armenia having a total balance
reserve of 155,799 cubic meters. Two of the deposits (Aragats and Jzaber)
are being used. The Aragats-Perlite enterprise produces filtering powders,
detritus, and effervesced perlite from the extracted raw perlite. The remarkable
part of the extracted perlite is used as a light addition in concrete.
Perlite is used as a filtration material in the refining of oil and oil
products as well as used as a component in the glass and ceramic industries.
Zeolit is known as 'molecular sieves' and has high selective absorption
qualities. It is used in the technological process of drainage, separations
and cleaning of liquids and gases A second use is as a catalyst bearer
in the sphere of environmental protection. In this situation, it is used
in the process of gas catching or cleaning; for extraction of different
valuable components from industrial sewage waters: and as a deactivator
in cleaning of blood in cases of poisonings. Zeolit can also be used as
fodder for farm animals. The only identified deposit of Zeolit is in Noyemberian
and has an estimated resource of 150 to 170 million tons.
Diatomite serves as an efficient filtration material in the food, chemical,
and paper industries. The resource base of diatomite consists of five deposits
with a total balance reserve of 16,126 cubic meters. There are considerable
Armenia is rich with semiprecious
and ornamental stones such as the jewelry agates,
jasper, amethyst, serdoliks, turquoise, and different types
of marble onyx.
(volcanic glass) has many variations of color and is used in many applications.
Obsidian is found in Northern Armenia, particularly in the Hrazdan region.
Jewelry and decorative art works made from these precious stones have high
artistic value throuqhout the world.
Despite the variety of precious stones,
this area has been slightly explored and is an underutilized mineral resource.
During the last 10 to 15 years, specialized geological work has been initiated,
and as a result Armenia has the potential to become a viable precious stone
Common salt deposits having estimated
reserves of 150 to 200bin tons have been found near the capital city of
Waters: Armenia has an abundant resource of mineral water distinguished
by varieties of physical and chemical compositions, temperatures, and medicinal
characteristics. Notably famous are the springs of Jermuk, Arzni, Dilijan,
Bzhnj, Hankavan, and Sevan. For the most part the water comes from cold
springs, 4 to 20°c, with Jermuk as an exception having a temperature