Chronology of events
(7th c. - 1996)
- Paris Peace Conference convenes; Armenia submits claims to
historic lands including Karabagh. Azerbaijan and Gen. Thompson appoint
Dr. Khosrov Beg Sultanov, who was already suspected by Armenians as an
instigator of massacres as Governor-General of Karabagh and Zangezur Appointment
draws violent protests from Armenians in Karabagh. Republic of Armenia
protests; declares Karabagh and Zangezur to be inseparable parts of Armenia.
Also protests appointment of Sultanov.
- Fourth Pan-Karabagh Assembly declares Karabagh to be inseparable
from Armenia, does not recognize Azeri rule. Elects a National Council
to carry out decision.
Azerbaijan army and British troops dispatched to Karabagh to erforce Areri
rule. Effort repulsed by Armenians.
British General Shuttleworth replaces Thompson as High Commander of the
Caucasus, re-announces decision to allow Azeri rule over Karabagh; reiterates
Thompson's plan of maintaining status quo until the Paris Peace Conference
decides the final boundaries. Republic of Armenia government once again
protests, sends emissary to negotiate. Emissary is banished by British.
Fifth Pan-Karabagh Assembly meets, rejects Shuttleworth's plan. Its Congress
accuses Azerbaijan of being an accomplice to Turkish goals of Pan-Turanism
or Pan-Turkism, which aspired to unite all lands inhabited by ethnic Turks
in Anatolia, old Tzarist Transcaucasia, Iran and Central Asia. British
mission secretly advises Sultanov to enter Shushi with military force.
With British knowledge, more intensive attacks on Armenian villages in
Karabagh. Sultanov ignores all protests, is suspected by Armenians of encauraging
Unable to enforce law and order, British withdraw forces from Karabagh.
Armenian Catholicos in Etchmiadzin sends British a formal protest. Massive
demonstrations in Yerevan and Tbilisi. Hundreds of thousands participate,
representing all patriotic, political and cultural organizations demanding
that authors of the massacres be arrested and punished. Sixth Pan-Karabagh
Assembly agrees to negotiate with Azeri government in Baku. Armenians compromise
in negotiations but leave treaty unsigned. British War Office announces
withdrawal from entire region of Caucasus.
Sultanov presents Seventh Pan-Karabagh Assembly ultimatum to
accept Baku agreement. Because agreement had been left open Sultanov changes
terms more in favor of Azeri govermnent. Congress bows to inevitable, accepts
Sultanov's terms. Representatives create temporary quasi-autonomous district
of Karabagh under rule of Azerbaijan pending final determination of Paris
Peace Conference. Paris Peace Conference is still in progress. Armenian
representatives stress that the region of Karabagh is Armenian in every
detail. Allied High Commissioner Haskell arrives in Yerevan. Ninth world
Congress of the Dashnaktsutiun (ARF) passes special resolution claiming
Karabagh and Zangezur as integral parts of Armenian state.
- Violence fares up in Karabagh once again.
- Violence in Karabagh intensifies.
- The Republic of Azerbaijan concludes treaty with Turkey at
expense of Armenia. Prime Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan hold private
discussion with U.S. Army Colonel Rhea concerning conflicts between the
two republics. Discussions lead to agreement signed in Tbilisi reflecting
desire to cease hoslilities.
- Conference of Armenian and Azeri representatives in Baku produces
- Memorandum of Eighth Assembly of Pan-Karabagh Congress to
the Allied Powers.
Red Army of the Soviet State rapidly conquers Azerbaijan, enters
Baku as a first step in the reconquest of the Tzarist empire. Azerbaijan
becomes a Soviet republic.
Republic of Armenia receives ultimatum from Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet
Russia to clear Armenian troops from pockets in Karabagh and Zangezur within
July - Representatives
of Armenian National Council in Karabagh leave for Moscow to demand annexation
of Karabagh to Armenia. Soviets make first move to accommodate Turco-Soviet
plan to carve up Armenia.
Treaty of Sevres in Paris makes provisions for final settlement
of Armeno-Azeri boundary lines. Khalil Pasha visits Yerevan to discuss
Karabagh; outlines Soviet-Turkish plan to unite lands free of Armenian
- The government of the Armenian Republic, facing advancing
Soviet and Turkish forces, transfers power to Bolsheviks, Armenia becomes
a Soviet republic on December 2. Telegram sent by Soviet Azerbaijani government
to Snviet Armenian government cedes territories of Karabagh, Zangezur and
Nakhichevan to new fraternal Soviet republic. Border disputes declared
Treaty of Moscow reverses earlier announcements, formalizes
cession of Nakhichevan to Azerbaijan, thus helping to improve Soviet relations
Avis Nurichanian, the People's Military Commissar of Sonet Armenia, declares
that Karabagh is an inseparable part of Armenia.
Soviet delegation in negotiations with local government of Karabagh agrees
with Nurichanian, and promises Karabagh will be included in Armenian boundaries.
June - Once
again based on agreements between the Soviet republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan,
Soviet Armenia demands acquisifion of Karabagh.
- Treaty of Kars signed between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian
Soviet Republics. Policy set by Soviet government finalizing boundaries
in the Caucasus.
Karabagh proclaimed an autonomous region by decree or the Azerbaijan Central
Committee, initiated by Moscow.
- Two rounds of leaflets distributed in Karabagh by the "Union
of Karabagh for Armenia~. Numerous arrests follow.
Marked Pan-Turanic movements in
Azerbaijan. Armenians of Karabagh express desire to join Armenia.
Aghasi Khanjian, Secretary of Communist Party of Armenia, killed after
submitting Armenian grievances to Stalin. Grievances include requests to
return Karabagh and Nakhichevan to Armenia.
- False rumor spreads through the Armenian Diaspora that Karabagh
and Nakhichevan will be reunited with Armenia on the occasion of Armenia's
40th anniversary of sovietization.
- Soviet government response to rumors states tbat central authorities
have no right to reintegrate Nakhichevan and Karabagh in Soviet Armenian
republic, but Azerbaijan could cede on its own.
Petition to Khrushchev signed by
2,500 representatives of 200,000 Armenians of all of Karabagh complaining
of cultural oppression, economic sabotage, and enforced population shifts.
Khrushchev refuses to visit Armenia
to discuss the Karabagh case. Eighteen Armenians killed in Karabagh by
Turks. Intellectuals at University of Yerevan protest; later arested.
National Unity Party is formed in
Yerevan. While its main goal---the independence of Soviet Armenia, changes
over time, the unification of Karabagh and Nakhichevan remains central
Soviet Armenia once again officially appeals to Moscow for Karabagh
to be annexed to Soviet Armenia. Moscow says issue must be resolved between
the two republics.
- Appeal by Armenian residents of Karabagh to the governrnent
of Armenia describing intolerable conditions.
- Anton Y. Kochinian Communist Party leader of Soviet Armenia,
removed from post ostensibly for inability to halt nationalist agitation.
National Unity Party calls for general
elections. Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Lithuanians participate with NUP
in hunger strikes.
Armenians of Karabagh rebuked; some
imprisoned on charges of nationalist agitation, others removed from office
- Sero Khanzatian, leading member of the Armenian Communist
Party and the Soviet Writers Union, writes strong letter to Brezhnev arguing
for the annexation of Karabagh to Armenia.
- Protest demonstrations at public events and pleas from Karabagh
Armenians charge Azeris with cultural oppression and economic discrimination.
Mountainous Karabagh's new constitution
adopted. Local officials' authority reduced to mere ratification and execution
of Azerbaijan governnnnent decisions.
350 Soviet Armenian intellectuals urge Gorbachev to close nuclear plant
due to radiation.
Armenian Communist Party Central Committee Plenum singles out officials
for criticism. Gorbachev publicly chastises Armenian party leaders for
Petition for annexation or Karabagh to Armenia signed by 100,000. Other
sources place number between 75,000 and 400,000.