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Chronology of events (7th c. - 1996)

January - Paris Peace Conference convenes; Armenia submits claims to historic lands including Karabagh. Azerbaijan and Gen. Thompson appoint Dr. Khosrov Beg Sultanov, who was already suspected by Armenians as an instigator of massacres as Governor-General of Karabagh and Zangezur Appointment draws violent protests from Armenians in Karabagh. Republic of Armenia protests; declares Karabagh and Zangezur to be inseparable parts of Armenia. Also protests appointment of Sultanov. 

February - Fourth Pan-Karabagh Assembly declares Karabagh to be inseparable from Armenia, does not recognize Azeri rule. Elects a National Council to carry out decision. 

March - Azerbaijan army and British troops dispatched to Karabagh to erforce Areri rule. Effort repulsed by Armenians. 

April - British General Shuttleworth replaces Thompson as High Commander of the Caucasus, re-announces decision to allow Azeri rule over Karabagh; reiterates Thompson's plan of maintaining status quo until the Paris Peace Conference decides the final boundaries. Republic of Armenia government once again protests, sends emissary to negotiate. Emissary is banished by British. Fifth Pan-Karabagh Assembly meets, rejects Shuttleworth's plan. Its Congress accuses Azerbaijan of being an accomplice to Turkish goals of Pan-Turanism or Pan-Turkism, which aspired to unite all lands inhabited by ethnic Turks in Anatolia, old Tzarist Transcaucasia, Iran and Central Asia. British mission secretly advises Sultanov to enter Shushi with military force. 

May - With British knowledge, more intensive attacks on Armenian villages in Karabagh. Sultanov ignores all protests, is suspected by Armenians of encauraging attacks 

June - Unable to enforce law and order, British withdraw forces from Karabagh. Armenian Catholicos in Etchmiadzin sends British a formal protest. Massive demonstrations in Yerevan and Tbilisi. Hundreds of thousands participate, representing all patriotic, political and cultural organizations demanding that authors of the massacres be arrested and punished. Sixth Pan-Karabagh Assembly agrees to negotiate with Azeri government in Baku. Armenians compromise in negotiations but leave treaty unsigned. British War Office announces withdrawal from entire region of Caucasus. 

August - Sultanov presents Seventh Pan-Karabagh Assembly ultimatum to accept Baku agreement. Because agreement had been left open Sultanov changes terms more in favor of Azeri govermnent. Congress bows to inevitable, accepts Sultanov's terms. Representatives create temporary quasi-autonomous district of Karabagh under rule of Azerbaijan pending final determination of Paris Peace Conference. Paris Peace Conference is still in progress. Armenian representatives stress that the region of Karabagh is Armenian in every detail. Allied High Commissioner Haskell arrives in Yerevan. Ninth world Congress of the Dashnaktsutiun (ARF) passes special resolution claiming Karabagh and Zangezur as integral parts of Armenian state. 

September - Violence fares up in Karabagh once again. 

October - Violence in Karabagh intensifies. 

November - The Republic of Azerbaijan concludes treaty with Turkey at expense of Armenia. Prime Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan hold private discussion with U.S. Army Colonel Rhea concerning conflicts between the two republics. Discussions lead to agreement signed in Tbilisi reflecting desire to cease hoslilities. 

December - Conference of Armenian and Azeri representatives in Baku produces no agreement. 

February-March - Memorandum of Eighth Assembly of Pan-Karabagh Congress to the Allied Powers. 

April - Red Army of the Soviet State rapidly conquers Azerbaijan, enters Baku as a first step in the reconquest of the Tzarist empire. Azerbaijan becomes a Soviet republic. 

May - Republic of Armenia receives ultimatum from Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet Russia to clear Armenian troops from pockets in Karabagh and Zangezur within three days. 

July - Representatives of Armenian National Council in Karabagh leave for Moscow to demand annexation of Karabagh to Armenia. Soviets make first move to accommodate Turco-Soviet plan to carve up Armenia. 

August - Treaty of Sevres in Paris makes provisions for final settlement of Armeno-Azeri boundary lines. Khalil Pasha visits Yerevan to discuss Karabagh; outlines Soviet-Turkish plan to unite lands free of Armenian jurisdiction. 

December - The government of the Armenian Republic, facing advancing Soviet and Turkish forces, transfers power to Bolsheviks, Armenia becomes a Soviet republic on December 2. Telegram sent by Soviet Azerbaijani government to Snviet Armenian government cedes territories of Karabagh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan to new fraternal Soviet republic. Border disputes declared resolved. 

March - Treaty of Moscow reverses earlier announcements, formalizes cession of Nakhichevan to Azerbaijan, thus helping to improve Soviet relations with Turkey. 

April - Avis Nurichanian, the People's Military Commissar of Sonet Armenia, declares that Karabagh is an inseparable part of Armenia. 

May - Soviet delegation in negotiations with local government of Karabagh agrees with Nurichanian, and promises Karabagh will be included in Armenian boundaries. 

June - Once again based on agreements between the Soviet republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan, Soviet Armenia demands acquisifion of Karabagh. 

October - Treaty of Kars signed between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian Soviet Republics. Policy set by Soviet government finalizing boundaries in the Caucasus. 

July - Karabagh proclaimed an autonomous region by decree or the Azerbaijan Central Committee, initiated by Moscow. 

November - Two rounds of leaflets distributed in Karabagh by the "Union of Karabagh for Armenia~. Numerous arrests follow. 

Marked Pan-Turanic movements in Azerbaijan. Armenians of Karabagh express desire to join Armenia. 

June - Aghasi Khanjian, Secretary of Communist Party of Armenia, killed after submitting Armenian grievances to Stalin. Grievances include requests to return Karabagh and Nakhichevan to Armenia. 

August - False rumor spreads through the Armenian Diaspora that Karabagh and Nakhichevan will be reunited with Armenia on the occasion of Armenia's 40th anniversary of sovietization. 

November - Soviet government response to rumors states tbat central authorities have no right to reintegrate Nakhichevan and Karabagh in Soviet Armenian republic, but Azerbaijan could cede on its own. 

Petition to Khrushchev signed by 2,500 representatives of 200,000 Armenians of all of Karabagh complaining of cultural oppression, economic sabotage, and enforced population shifts. 

Khrushchev refuses to visit Armenia to discuss the Karabagh case. Eighteen Armenians killed in Karabagh by Turks. Intellectuals at University of Yerevan protest; later arested. 

National Unity Party is formed in Yerevan. While its main goal---the independence of Soviet Armenia, changes over time, the unification of Karabagh and Nakhichevan remains central concern. 

August - Soviet Armenia once again officially appeals to Moscow for Karabagh to be annexed to Soviet Armenia. Moscow says issue must be resolved between the two republics. 

September - Appeal by Armenian residents of Karabagh to the governrnent of Armenia describing intolerable conditions. 

November - Anton Y. Kochinian Communist Party leader of Soviet Armenia, removed from post ostensibly for inability to halt nationalist agitation. 

National Unity Party calls for general elections. Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Lithuanians participate with NUP in hunger strikes. 

Armenians of Karabagh rebuked; some imprisoned on charges of nationalist agitation, others removed from office and exiled. 

October - Sero Khanzatian, leading member of the Armenian Communist Party and the Soviet Writers Union, writes strong letter to Brezhnev arguing for the annexation of Karabagh to Armenia. 

December - Protest demonstrations at public events and pleas from Karabagh Armenians charge Azeris with cultural oppression and economic discrimination. 

Mountainous Karabagh's new constitution adopted. Local officials' authority reduced to mere ratification and execution of Azerbaijan governnnnent decisions. 

March - 350 Soviet Armenian intellectuals urge Gorbachev to close nuclear plant due to radiation. 

July - Armenian Communist Party Central Committee Plenum singles out officials for criticism. Gorbachev publicly chastises Armenian party leaders for corruption. 

August - Petition for annexation or Karabagh to Armenia signed by 100,000. Other sources place number between 75,000 and 400,000. 

. October - Violence directed by Azerbaijani officials against Armenians in Karabagh. While visiting Boston, Sergei Mikoyan says glasnost creates favorable conditions for discussion of Karabagh question. Two demonstrations in Yerevan demanding closure of nuclear power plant and defense of Armenian national rights. Haidar Aliev, Azerbaijani official, is removed from Politburo and loses other federal functions. Clashes between Armenian and Tartar viIlagers in Chardaklu, Mountainous Karabagh. 

December - Turkish newspaper Hurriet reports Armenians provoked over Karabagh. Soviet central government endorses calls for removal of First Secretary of Armenian Communist Party.  

Chronology of events - Continue >
Updated 30 August 1999 ..
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