the past sixty-odd years Yerevan has undergone great changes and has considerably
expanded its territory. Its rate of growth has been so rapid that time
and again it has exceeded plans, which seemed almost fantastic at the time
they were adopted. During the years of Soviet rule the population of Yerevan
has increased thirty times over! At the present time it has reached 1.2
Yerevan today - a major industrial
centre of the Armenian republic - contributes a large share to the development
of the national economy.
Yerevan now boasts the most modern
branches of industry, those branches most needed for the national economy
- chemical, electrotechnical, machine-tool, machine-building, automobile,
instrument-making, electronic, and radio-electronic. All of these make
up the aspect of present-day industrial Yerevan.
is the largest centre of the republic's food and light industries. Almost
all of the woollen and silk fabrics produced in Armenia are made in Yerevan.
The cognacs for which Armenia is famous are produced at the Yerevan Cognac
Factory which you may visit and where you can take part in the tasting
of these wonderful products. Armenian cognacs are participants at almost
all international exhibitions and fairs. More than fifty medals, the majority
of them gold medals, from the proud collection of international awards
won by Armenian cognacs. Much praise has also fallen to Armenian wines,
most of which are produced at the Yerevan Winery and the Yerevan Factory
of Champagne Wines.
Yerevan is not only the heart, but
also the brain of the republic, the major scientific centre of Armenia.
All in all, there are more than 120 research institutions in Armenia, most
of which are in Yerevan. The centre of Armenian science is the Armenian
Academy of Sciences.
Yerevan is a city of students. Statistics
show that one out of every three of Yerevan's population is studying in
one or another educational establishment. Eleven of the republic's thirteen
higher educational establishments are located in Yerevan. There are scores
of specialized secondary schools and more than 150 secondary schools in
The Yerevan State University is rightly
termed the republic's main centre for training specialists. Founded in
December 1920, the University was the first higher educational establishment
in Armenia. Now it has become the leading higher educational institution
in Armenia and one of the largest and best in the region. Many of the University's
graduates have become prominent scientists, writers, executives, and public
large higher educational institution is the Yerevan Polytechnic Institute,
which trains highly qualified specialists for the national economy. It
has an enrolment of about 20,000 students.
The Armenian capital also has an
agricultural, a veterinary, a medical, an art and theatre institutes, an
institute of physical culture and sport, and a conservatory, which bears
the name of the Armenian composer Komidas.
The Armenian capital is the heir
of the past culture and the focal point of the contemporary culture of
the Armenian people. During your stay in Yerevan, you can visit its various
museums, attend performances at its theatres and concert halls, watch a
wide range of interesting sports competitions -from local to international
meets - at its stadiums and sports grounds.
acquainted with Yerevan
Before you visit Yerevan, it will
be very useful, to become acquainted beforehand with some of the highlights
of the capital of Armenia.
Square - is the city's central square. From it radiate the main
thoroughfares linking the centre of the city with its outlying districts.
This square is a splendid ensemble of buildings and the imposing centre
of the Armenian capital. It was designed by the prominent Armenian architect
Academician A. Tamanyan.
most outstanding building on the square is Government House, for whose
design A. Tamanyan was awarded a State Prize. In designing this monumental
structure A. Tamanyan made skilful use of elements of medieval Armenian
Some of these same elements can also
be seen in other buildings (designed by the architects S, Safaryan, R.
Israelyan and V. Arevshatyan). The Cabinet and other governmental offices
as well as the Erebuni and Armenia hotels.
One of the main components of the
architectural ensemble is the building the Armenian History Museum and
the Art Gallery of Armenia, reconstructed after a design by the architects
M. Grigoryan and E. Sarapyan. This building is an integral part of the
whole composition and lends it a finishing touch. The spacious pool accentuates
this impression with three groups of fountains which Yerevan residents
call "the singing fountains". In the evening the pool is the scene of "sound
and light" effects when Armenian folk, classical and variety music can
of Fountains - is a 220m stretch of 2750 fountains giving off
myriads of sparkling spray iridescent in the sunshine. These fountains
symbolize the 2750th anniversary of the founding of Yerevan in 1968, when
this alley was opened. In the centre of the alley, under an originally
designed arch, burns a perpetual flame commemorating Armenian revolutionaries.
Avenue - is Yerevan's main thoroughfare. On both sides of Mesrop
Mashtots Avenue are apartment houses, exterior decoration of which Armenian
tufa and basalt found in the republic have been widely used. The most interesting
and original buildings on this avenue are the Matenadaran, a repository
of ancient manuscripts, and the Central Covered
Market, the latter designed by G. Agababyan.
(Victory) Park was laid out at the start of the Kanaker plateau
in commemoration of the victory of the Soviet people over fascist Germany.
More than half a million Armenians saw action on the fronts of World War
II. 67,000 were awarded combat decorations, 107 were honoured with the
Title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and the Armenian flyer Nelson Stepanyan
was twice awarded this title, the second time posthumously.
The territory of the park covers
110 hectares. In the park you will see the monument "Mother-Armenia",
the tomb of the Unknown Soldier with a perpetual flame, the Museum of the
World War II, and other interesting things.
This imposing monument, the figure
of a heroic woman, symbolizes the contribution of the Armenian people to
the victory won against the enemy. The bronze figure weighs 15 tons. The
figure itself is a little more than 21 m. in height and together with the
pedestal on which it stands - 56 m.
Street - named after the founder of modern Armenian literature
Khachatur Abovyan, is an important artery linking Republic Square with
the roads along the southern slopes of the Kanaker plateau to Victory Park
and to the Nork plateau through the Avan gorge. There are many apartment
houses, administrative buildings, and studentsí dormitories on this street.
The picturesque gorge of the Hrazdan
River, which lies within the city limits, adjoins the green area of the
city's parks. A recreation zone has been developed in the gorge with an
integrated system of barrages to form a series of ponds. A children's railway
has been built here and also the "Hrazdan" stadium, one of the largest
in the region, where thousands of Yerevan spectators watch games played
by their favourite football team "Ararat" in contests for international
There is an elevation in Yerevan
known as Tsitsernakaberd (Swallow's
Tower). Not so long ago it was simply an area of wasteland. Today Tsitsernakaberd
is sacred to every Armenian whether he lives in Yerevan or in remote Argentina.
The million and a half Armenians-women, children and old people brutally
massacred by the Young Turks in 1915, have found their symbolic grave here.
A park has been laid out on the top
of the Tsitsernakaberd elevation with a memorial complex in its centre.
Twelve massive basalt pylons slope to form a mausoleum. In the centre of
the mausoleum is a depression with a large chased copper bowl in which
a perpetual flame burns. The music of the Armenian composers Komidas, Yekmalyan
and Khachaturyan can always be heard here.
To the right of the mausoleum are
two pyramidical spires of stainless steel symbolizing Armenia and its regeneration.
To the left is a basalt wall on which episodes of this tragic event in
the history of the Armenian people are depicted.
statue of David of Sasun. It would be hard to find in modern
Armenia another work of art, which has become so dear to the hearts of
the people and which is so closely bound up with the image of Armenia.
The outstanding Armenian sculptor Yervand Kochar executed this monument
to David of Sasun, hero of the national Armenian epos and liberator of
his people from foreign invaders. In 1939 Armenia marked the 1000th anniversary
of this famous national epos.
The national hero is depicted in
a moment of struggle, ready to destroy the enemy with his fiery sword.
Dzhalali, Sasun's fantastic steed, defying the heavenly spaces in swiftness,
is shown reared on the huge basalt slab forming the pedestal.
Erected in the centre of the square
facing the railway station the statue of David of Sasun is such an integral
part of the square that it seems to have been standing there for hundreds
of Vartan Mamikonyan, by the same sculptor, is a monument to
a real historical person, a national hero of the Armenian people, a talented
leader of Armenian insurgents and a fearless warrior who lived in the 5th
century. The horseman and his steed are depicted in the moment of attacking
the enemy and seem to be soaring in the air. The only point of support
is the stylized cloud of dust.
to Sayat-Nova, the inspired bard of friendship and brotherhood
among peoples, philosopher and humanist, was erected to commemorate the
250th anniversary of his birth. It stands in front of the Music School,
which bears the poet's name. The sculptor, A. Arutyunyan, gives us the
image of a bard whose personal destiny was closely bound up with the destiny
of his works, with their meaning and content. Though not monumental in
size this statue of Sayat-Nova is one of the finest in the collection of
On two of the city's largest streets
- Abovyan and Nalbandyan - monuments
have been erected in honour of the men after whom the streets are named.
The author of the statue of Khachatur Abovyan is the sculptor S. Stepanyan,
that of the statue of Mikael Nalbandyan - N. Nikogosyan.